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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Dry Electrodes in Canine Heart Rate Monitoring

BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki (UH), P.O. Box 57 (Viikintie 49), FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Straße 2, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany
Research Group for Emotions, Sociality, and Computing, Faculty of Communication Sciences, University of Tampere (UTA), Pinni B Building, Kanslerinrinne 1, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1757;
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Physiological Sensing)
The functionality of three dry electrocardiogram electrode constructions was evaluated by measuring canine heart rate during four different behaviors: Standing, sitting, lying and walking. The testing was repeated (n = 9) in each of the 36 scenarios with three dogs. Two of the electrodes were constructed with spring-loaded test pins while the third electrode was a molded polymer electrode with Ag/AgCl coating. During the measurement, a specifically designed harness was used to attach the electrodes to the dogs. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated and compared in terms of heartbeat detection coverage. The effect on the respective heart rate coverage was studied by computing the heart rate coverage from the measured electrocardiogram signal using a pattern-matching algorithm to extract the R-peaks and further the beat-to-beat heart rate. The results show that the overall coverage ratios regarding the electrodes varied between 45–95% in four different activity modes. The lowest coverage was for lying and walking and the highest was for standing and sitting. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry electrode; heart rate canine dry electrode; heart rate canine
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Virtanen, J.; Somppi, S.; Törnqvist, H.; Jeyhani, V.; Fiedler, P.; Gizatdinova, Y.; Majaranta, P.; Väätäjä, H.; Valldeoriola Cardó, A.; Lekkala, J.; Tuukkanen, S.; Surakka, V.; Vainio, O.; Vehkaoja, A. Evaluation of Dry Electrodes in Canine Heart Rate Monitoring. Sensors 2018, 18, 1757.

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