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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051578

Leveraging Energy Harvesting and Wake-Up Receivers for Long-Term Wireless Sensor Networks

1
University of Rennes, CNRS, IRISA, 6 rue Kerampont, F-22305 Lannion CEDEX, France
2
ETH Zurich, Integrated Systems Laboratory, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Wireless sensor nodes are traditionally powered by individual batteries, and a significant effort has been devoted to maximizing the lifetime of these devices. However, as the batteries can only store a finite amount of energy, the network is still doomed to die, and changing the batteries is not always possible. A promising solution is to enable each node to harvest energy directly in its environment, using individual energy harvesters. Moreover, novel ultra-low power wake-up receivers, which allow continuous listening of the channel with negligible power consumption, are emerging. These devices enable asynchronous communication, further reducing the power consumption related to communication, which is typically one the most energy-consuming tasks in wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting and wake-up receivers can be combined to significantly increase the energy efficiency of sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an energy manager for energy harvesting wireless sensor nodes and an asynchronous medium access control protocol, which exploits ultra-low power wake-up receivers. The two components are designed to work together and especially to fit the stringent constraints of wireless sensor nodes. The proposed approach has been implemented on a real hardware platform and tested in the field. Experimental results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of energy efficiency, power consumption and throughput, which can be up to more than two-times higher compared to traditional schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; energy harvesting; wake-up radio; MAC protocols; energy management wireless sensor networks; energy harvesting; wake-up radio; MAC protocols; energy management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ait Aoudia, F.; Gautier, M.; Magno, M.; Berder, O.; Benini, L. Leveraging Energy Harvesting and Wake-Up Receivers for Long-Term Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1578.

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