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Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks

GNSS Research Centre, Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN, Delft, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1078;
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); PPP-RTK network and user; network in-loop; carrier phase ambiguity resolution; ionosphere weighted model Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); PPP-RTK network and user; network in-loop; carrier phase ambiguity resolution; ionosphere weighted model
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Nadarajah, N.; Khodabandeh, A.; Wang, K.; Choudhury, M.; Teunissen, P.J.G. Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1078.

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