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Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks

1
GNSS Research Centre, Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
2
Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN, Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041078
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); PPP-RTK network and user; network in-loop; carrier phase ambiguity resolution; ionosphere weighted model Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); PPP-RTK network and user; network in-loop; carrier phase ambiguity resolution; ionosphere weighted model
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Nadarajah, N.; Khodabandeh, A.; Wang, K.; Choudhury, M.; Teunissen, P.J.G. Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From Large- to Small-Scale Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1078.

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