EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait
Inertia Technology B.V., 7521 AG Enschede, The Netherlands
Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
Rosmark Consultancy, 6733 AA Wekerom, The Netherlands
Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Department of Computer Science, Pervasive Systems Group, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various equine gait modes, and analyzes both upper-body and limb movements. The validation against an optical motion capture system is based on a Bland–Altman analysis that illustrates the agreement between the two systems. The sagittal kinematic results (protraction, retraction, and sagittal range of motion) show limits of agreement of
degrees and an absolute bias of
degrees in the worst case. The coronal kinematic results (adduction, abduction, and coronal range of motion) show limits of agreement of
degrees, and an absolute bias of
degrees in the worst case. The worse coronal kinematic results are most likely caused by the optical system setup (depth perception difficulty and suboptimal marker placement). The upper-body symmetry results show no significant bias in the agreement between the two systems; in most cases, the agreement is within ±5 mm. On a trial-level basis, the limits of agreement for withers and sacrum are within ±2 mm, meaning that the system can properly quantify motion asymmetry. Overall, the bias for all symmetry-related results is less than 1 mm, which is important for reproducibility and further comparison to other systems.
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Bosch, S.; Serra Bragança, F.; Marin-Perianu, M.; Marin-Perianu, R.; Van der Zwaag, B.J.; Voskamp, J.; Back, W.; Van Weeren, R.; Havinga, P. EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait. Sensors 2018, 18, 850.
Bosch S, Serra Bragança F, Marin-Perianu M, Marin-Perianu R, Van der Zwaag BJ, Voskamp J, Back W, Van Weeren R, Havinga P. EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait. Sensors. 2018; 18(3):850.
Bosch, Stephan; Serra Bragança, Filipe; Marin-Perianu, Mihai; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Van der Zwaag, Berend J.; Voskamp, John; Back, Willem; Van Weeren, René; Havinga, Paul. 2018. "EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait." Sensors 18, no. 3: 850.
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