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Evaluating the Influence of Chromatic and Luminance Stimuli on SSVEPs from Behind-the-Ears and Occipital Areas

Postgraduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria 29075-910, Brazil
Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica (GATEME), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan,San Juan J5400ARL, Argentina
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), San Juan C1425FBQ, Argentina
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 615;
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assistance Robotics and Biosensors)
PDF [730 KB, uploaded 22 February 2018]


This work presents a study of chromatic and luminance stimuli in low-, medium-, and high-frequency stimulation to evoke steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) in the behind-the-ears area. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured on occipital (Oz) and left and right temporal (TP9 and TP10) areas. The SSVEP was evaluated in terms of amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and detection accuracy using power spectral density analysis (PSDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and temporally local multivariate synchronization index (TMSI) methods. It was found that stimuli based on suitable color and luminance elicited stronger SSVEP in the behind-the-ears area, and that the response of the SSVEP was related to the flickering frequency and the color of the stimuli. Thus, green-red stimulus elicited the highest SSVEP in medium-frequency range, and green-blue stimulus elicited the highest SSVEP in high-frequency range, reaching detection accuracy rates higher than 80%. These findings will aid in the development of more comfortable, accurate and stable BCIs with electrodes positioned on the behind-the-ears (hairless) areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: SSVEP; visual stimuli; BCI; hairless area SSVEP; visual stimuli; BCI; hairless area

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Floriano, A.; F. Diez, P.; Freire Bastos-Filho, T. Evaluating the Influence of Chromatic and Luminance Stimuli on SSVEPs from Behind-the-Ears and Occipital Areas. Sensors 2018, 18, 615.

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