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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020606

Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
2
China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
3
Yiwen Environmental Science Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510663, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Abstract

Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollution source localization; wireless sensor networks; mobile nodes; UV-visible spectroscopy; water quality multi-parameter; distributed algorithm; particle swarm optimization pollution source localization; wireless sensor networks; mobile nodes; UV-visible spectroscopy; water quality multi-parameter; distributed algorithm; particle swarm optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ma, J.; Meng, F.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, P. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 606.

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