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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020553

Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

1
Department of Electronic and Biomedical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Signal and Information Processing for Sensing Systems, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of ESAII, Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire detection; gas sensor; pattern recognition; sensor fusion; machine learning; toxicants; carbon monoxide; hydrogen cyanide; standard test fires; transducers; smoke fire detection; gas sensor; pattern recognition; sensor fusion; machine learning; toxicants; carbon monoxide; hydrogen cyanide; standard test fires; transducers; smoke
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fonollosa, J.; Solórzano, A.; Marco, S. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review. Sensors 2018, 18, 553.

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