# Paper-Based Magneto-Resistive Sensor: Modeling, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. State of the Art

#### 1.2. Anticipated Study

## 2. Results and Discussion

#### 2.1. Empirical and Computational Investigation of Paper-Based Magneto-Resistance of Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ Thin Film

#### 2.2. Sensor Characteristics

#### 2.3. Application Prototypes

## 3. Materials and Methods

#### 3.1. Sensor Fabrication

#### 3.2. Computational Modeling of Paper-Based Anisotropic-Magneto-Resistance

#### 3.3. Sensor Characterization

#### 3.4. Application Set-Up

## 4. Summary

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ | $81\%$ of nickel and $19\%$ of iron, permalloy |

Ni | Nickel |

Fe | Iron |

AMR | anisotropic magneto-resistance |

AC | alternating current |

DC | direct current |

WB | wheatstone bridge |

## References

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**Figure 1.**Visionary models of the use of textbook-embedded educational clickers in the classroom (

**a**,

**b**), and interactive braille flashcards (

**c**) which could employ the paper-based AMR sensor.

**Figure 2.**Alternating current (AC) component of magneto-resistance of 10 × 1 mm${}^{2}$-strip of Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ on a paper substrate (

**b**) in comparison to a reference $10\times 1$ mm${}^{2}$-strip of Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ on a highly smooth, fused silica substrate (

**a**) for the anisotropy angles ${\alpha}^{AMR}\in \{-{45}^{\circ},{0}^{\circ},{45}^{\circ},{90}^{\circ}\}$. The magneto-resistance is scaled into the range [$-0.5,1$].

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Magneto-resistive response of a Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ coating on a completely fibrous paper surface, ${R}_{p}^{AMR}$ at $\beta =1$, compared to the response of a Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ coating on a smooth surface, ${R}_{s}^{AMR}$ at $\beta =0$. The change of magneto-resistance is expressed in arbitrary units. (

**b**) Resulting %-change of AMR in dependence of the anisotropy angle for $\beta \in \{0.1,0.4,0.9\}$.

**Figure 4.**Change of resistance in dependence on (

**a**) the magnetic field intensity for AMR sensor ${S}_{1}$, and (

**b**) the angular configuration ${\alpha}^{AMR}$ for all five AMR sensors. Sweeping asymmetry of AMR peak magnitude (

**c**) and absolute peak location (

**d**) for the five AMR sensors ${S}_{1}$, ${S}_{2}$, ${S}_{3}$, ${S}_{4}$ and ${S}_{5}$ at representative arbitrary snapshots in time during continuous measurement.

**Figure 5.**Photographs of the hybrid clicker prototype (

**b**) embedded in a textbook format that houses the turnstile, the paper-based AMR sensor and a turning handle (

**c**), and hybrid interactive braille flashcards prototype based on the paper-based AMR sensor and the turnstile as a work base (

**d**). (

**a**) shows the amplified voltage data of the AMR sensor collected during calibration. The dashed (–) line represents the rolling average over the angular responses.

**Figure 6.**Photographs of (

**a**) printed sensor pattern on paper substrates, (

**b**) cuts of paper segments corresponding to gaps between inner pattern details of sensor, (

**d**) sputter deposition of Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$ after alignment of the paper substrate with the shadow mask, (

**e**) positioning and fixation of the electrodes, conductive adhesive bonding of electrodes to (

**f**) the meander, and (

**g**) the sensor stack. The method for patterning a sensor during sputter deposition using the combination of a shadow mask to pattern the outer frame of the meander and micro-machining to cut out inner segments from the paper material, is shown in (

**c**).

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Schematic representation of a fiber path (C, ${P}_{i}$, A) with nodes ${P}_{1}$, ${P}_{2}$, ${P}_{3}$ and ${P}_{4}$, segment lengths $\left\{{l}_{1},{l}_{2},{l}_{3},{l}_{4},{l}_{5}\right\}$, direction vectors $\{{\mathbf{d}}_{1},{\mathbf{d}}_{2},{\mathbf{d}}_{3},{\mathbf{d}}_{4},$${\mathbf{d}}_{5}\}$ and angles $\left\{{\varphi}_{1},{\varphi}_{2},{\varphi}_{3},{\varphi}_{4},{\varphi}_{5}\right\}$. ${\mathbf{i}}_{\left\{1,2,3,4,5\right\}}$ is the direction of the electrical current along a segment $i=\left\{1,2,3,4,5\right\}$, and ${\mathbf{i}}_{n}$ is the nominal direction of the electrical current between the cathode and anode. $\mathbf{H}$ is the direction of the magnetic field strength, H, and ${\alpha}^{AMR}$ is the anisotropy angle. (

**b**) Schematic representation of the trajectory of the electrical current along a fiber path (C, ${P}_{i}$, A) crossing a buried region $\mathcal{D}$. (${P}_{2}^{{}^{\prime}}$, ${P}_{2}^{{}^{\u2033}}$) represents the shortest direct path along the region $\mathcal{D}$ adjoining the fibrous path. (

**c**) A computationally obtained statistical sample of 1000 fiber paths between cathode C and anode A with ${\varphi}_{i}$ and ${l}_{i}$ uniform and Rayleigh distributed, respectively, on a square paper surface. Four fiber paths are highlighted for illustration purposes. (

**d**) Left: In comparison to the computational sample, two fiber paths are illustrated on a micrograph of a paper surface. Each fiber path is depicted in a distinct color. Right: Scanning electron microscope graphs of the surface of a clean room paper coated with (from top to bottom): 100 nm, 300 nm and 900 nm of Ni${}_{81}$Fe${}_{19}$.

**Figure 8.**Placement of the sensor fixed on a rotating volvelle within the homogeneity region of the Helmholtz excitation coils (

**a**). Schematic of the metrology circuit for determining the resistance of an anisotropic magneto-resistive element ${R}_{s}$ under the application of an AC magnetic field $H(t)$ for ${R}_{s}$ with (

**b**) large and (

**c**) small base resistances.

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Akin, M.; Pratt, A.; Blackburn, J.; Dietzel, A. Paper-Based Magneto-Resistive Sensor: Modeling, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application. *Sensors* **2018**, *18*, 4392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124392

**AMA Style**

Akin M, Pratt A, Blackburn J, Dietzel A. Paper-Based Magneto-Resistive Sensor: Modeling, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application. *Sensors*. 2018; 18(12):4392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124392

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Akin, Meriem, Autumn Pratt, Jennifer Blackburn, and Andreas Dietzel. 2018. "Paper-Based Magneto-Resistive Sensor: Modeling, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application" *Sensors* 18, no. 12: 4392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124392