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Open AccessArticle

Design and Implementation of Respiration Rate Measurement System Using an Information Filter on an Embedded Device

University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
Robotics Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gyeonggi-do, Ansan-si 15588, Korea
Manufacturing System Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chungcheongnam-do, Cheonan-si 31056, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4208;
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
In this work, an algorithm was developed to measure respiration rate for an embedded device that can be used by a field robot for relief operations. With this algorithm, the rate measurement was calculated based on direct influences of respiratory-induced intensity variation (RIIV) on blood flow in cardiovascular pathways. For this, a photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor was used to determine changes in heartbeat frequencies. The PPG sensor readings were filtered using an Information Filter and a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to determine the state of RIIV. With a relatively light initialization, the information filter can estimate unknown variables based on a series of measurements containing noise and other inaccuracies. Therefore, this filter is suitable for application in an embedded device. For faster calculation time in the implementation, the FFT analysis was calculated only for a major peak in frequency domain. Test and measurement of respiration rate was conducted based on the device algorithm and spirometer. Heartbeat measurements were also evaluated by comparing the heartbeat data of the PPG sensor and pulse-oximeter. Based on the test, the implemented algorithm can measure the respiration rate with approximately 80% accuracy compared with the spirometer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Photoplethysmography (PPG); respiration rate; information filter Photoplethysmography (PPG); respiration rate; information filter
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Prasetiyo, R.B.; Choi, K.-S.; Yang, G.-H. Design and Implementation of Respiration Rate Measurement System Using an Information Filter on an Embedded Device. Sensors 2018, 18, 4208.

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