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RECRP: An Underwater Reliable Energy-Efficient Cross-Layer Routing Protocol

1
College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Liu, J.; Yu, M.M.; Wang, X.W.; Liu, Y.Y.; Wei, X.H. RECRP: A Reliable Energy-efficient Cross-layer Routing Protocol in UWSNs. In Proceedings of the OCEANS ‘18 MTS/IEEE Kobe/Techno—Ocean 2018, Kobe, Japan, 28–31 May 2018. (accepted).
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4148; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124148
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensing, Communication, Networking and Systems)
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Abstract

A reliable energy-efficient routing protocol plays a key role in underwater data transmission. In the face of acoustic communication challenges in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), including long propagation delay, topology change, limited energy, and communication voids, we propose RECRP, a Reliable Energy-efficient Cross-layer Routing Protocol to achieve high data delivery rate. RECRP is a location-free single-copy protocol. The information of the physical layer such as Doppler scale shift measurement, Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), etc. are adopted to estimate the distance, thus no extra hardware is needed for localization. Moreover, the overhead introduced by redundant packets is avoided with the single-copy mechanism. To improve the two-hop packet delivery rate and balance energy consumption among adjacent nodes, an optimal max–min method is proposed that dynamically controls transmission power and channel frequency. Furthermore, a surface to bottom routing establishment method is also adopted to handle communication voids. Compared with depth-based routing (DBR) and hop-by-hop vector-based forwarding (HH-VBF), RECRP is more energy-efficient with a higher delivery rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); cross-layer; routing protocol underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); cross-layer; routing protocol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, J.; Yu, M.; Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Wei, X.; Cui, J. RECRP: An Underwater Reliable Energy-Efficient Cross-Layer Routing Protocol. Sensors 2018, 18, 4148.

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