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Online Moisture Measurement of Bio Fuel at a Paper Mill Employing a Microwave Resonator

Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Maarintie 8, 02150 Espoo, Finland
This paper is an extended version of my paper published in 9th International Conference on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances (ISEMA 2011), Kansas City, MO, USA, 31 May–3 June 2011.
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3844;
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
PDF [4336 KB, uploaded 9 November 2018]


This paper investigates online moisture measurement of biofuel employing a strip line cavity resonator at approximately 366 MHz, attached above and below the conveyor belt. An existing sensor design is modified for the factory assembly, and the correct operation has been tested prior to this paper with a small number of measurement points and collected reference samples (n = 67). The purpose is now to concentrate on the accuracy of the measurement and increase the number of measurement points (n = 367). The measurements were made in 5 different lots, and the thickness and moisture properties of the biomaterial mat were varied between minimum and maximum levels by adjusting the settings of the belt filter press that presses pulp slush into a mat. In order to further reduce inaccuracy, at the maximum one standard deviation was allowed from the average height of the equivalent water layer for each dataset, and consequently the number of samples was reduced to 235. A linear fit and a parabola fit were determined for thickness of the equivalent water layer vs. the relative resonant frequency shift: R2 = 0.82 and R2 = 0.78. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio fuel; microwave resonator; moisture measurement; paper mill bio fuel; microwave resonator; moisture measurement; paper mill

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Olkkonen, M.-K. Online Moisture Measurement of Bio Fuel at a Paper Mill Employing a Microwave Resonator. Sensors 2018, 18, 3844.

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