Next Article in Journal
Computerized Ultrasonic Imaging Inspection: From Shallow to Deep Learning
Next Article in Special Issue
Streaming MASSIF: Cascading Reasoning for Efficient Processing of IoT Data Streams
Previous Article in Journal
Low-Power Low-Cost Wireless Flood Sensor for Smart Home Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Volunteers in the Smart City: Comparison of Contribution Strategies on Human-Centered Measures
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113818

Real Evaluations Tractability using Continuous Goal-Directed Actions in Smart City Applications

Robotics Lab Research Group within the Department of Systems Engineering and Automation, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Getafe, 28903 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [555 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

One of the most important challenges of Smart City Applications is to adapt the system to interact with non-expert users. Robot imitation frameworks aim to simplify and reduce times of robot programming by allowing users to program directly through action demonstrations. In classical robot imitation frameworks, actions are modelled using joint or Cartesian space trajectories. They accurately describe actions where geometrical characteristics are relevant, such as fixed trajectories from one pose to another. Other features, such as visual ones, are not always well represented with these pure geometrical approaches. Continuous Goal-Directed Actions (CGDA) is an alternative to these conventional methods, as it encodes actions as changes of any selected feature that can be extracted from the environment. As a consequence of this, the robot joint trajectories for execution must be fully computed to comply with this feature-agnostic encoding. This is achieved using Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), which usually requires too many evaluations to perform this evolution step in the actual robot. The current strategies involve performing evaluations in a simulated environment, transferring only the final joint trajectory to the actual robot. Smart City applications involve working in highly dynamic and complex environments, where having a precise model is not always achievable. Our goal is to study the tractability of performing these evaluations directly in a real-world scenario. Two different approaches to reduce the number of evaluations using EA, are proposed and compared. In the first approach, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based methods have been studied and compared within the CGDA framework: naïve PSO, Fitness Inheritance PSO (FI-PSO), and Adaptive Fuzzy Fitness Granulation with PSO (AFFG-PSO). The second approach studied the introduction of geometrical and velocity constraints within the CGDA framework. The effects of both approaches were analyzed and compared in the “wax” and “paint” actions, two CGDA commonly studied use cases. Results from this paper depict an important reduction in the number of required evaluations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Smart City; CGDA; evolutionary algorithms; PbD; LfD; evaluations; humanoids robots; constraints; PSO; fitness inheritance; real world Smart City; CGDA; evolutionary algorithms; PbD; LfD; evaluations; humanoids robots; constraints; PSO; fitness inheritance; real world
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandez-Fernandez, R.; Victores, J.G.; Estevez, D.; Balaguer, C. Real Evaluations Tractability using Continuous Goal-Directed Actions in Smart City Applications. Sensors 2018, 18, 3818.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top