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Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103516

Minimizing Delay and Transmission Times with Long Lifetime in Code Dissemination Scheme for High Loss Ratio and Low Duty Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks

1
School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
2
School of Informatics, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
3
College of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China
4
The State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
5
College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
6
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA
7
Department of Networks Engineering, School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Software defined networks brings greater flexibility to networks and therefore generates new vitality. Thanks to the ability to update soft code to sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) brings profound changes to Internet of Things. However, it is a challenging issue to minimize delay and transmission times and maintain long lifetime when broadcasting data packets in high loss ratio and low duty cycle WSNs. Although there have been some research concerning code dissemination, those schemes can only achieve a tradeoff between different performances, instead of optimizing all these important performances at the same time. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new strategy that can reduce delay and transmission times simultaneously. In traditional method, the broadcasting nature of wireless communication is not sufficiently utilized. By allowing sons of the same parent node to share awake slots, the broadcasting nature is well exploited and delay is thus reduced as well as transmission times with lifetime not affected. And, as we discover there is energy surplus when collecting data in area away from sink, we further improve this strategy so that all the performances can be further bettered. Compared with traditional method, the methods we design (IFAS, BTAS and AAPS) can respectively reduce delay by 20.56%, 31.59%, 55.16% and reduce transmission times by 29.53%, 43.93%, 42.04%, while not reducing lifetime. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; code dissemination; delay; lifetime; transmission times; low duty cycle wireless sensor networks; code dissemination; delay; lifetime; transmission times; low duty cycle
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Qi, W.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, A.; Wang, T.; Xiong, N.N.; Cai, Z. Minimizing Delay and Transmission Times with Long Lifetime in Code Dissemination Scheme for High Loss Ratio and Low Duty Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 3516.

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