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Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Recursive Fingerprint Radio Map Creation Algorithm Combining Wi-Fi and Geomagnetism

1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, #727 Taejong-Ro, Youngdo-Gu, Busan 49112, Korea
2
Division of Electronics and Electrical Information Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, #727 Taejong-Ro, Youngdo-Gu, Busan 49112, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103390
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Fusion and Novel Technologies in Positioning and Navigation)
Fingerprint is a typical indoor-positioning algorithm, which measures the strength of wireless signals and creates a radio map. Using this radio map, the position is estimated through comparisons with the received signal strength measured in real-time. The radio map has a direct effect on the positioning performance; therefore, it should be designed accurately and managed efficiently, according to the type of wireless signal, amount of space, and wireless-signal density. This paper proposes a real-time recursive radio map creation algorithm that combines Wi-Fi and geomagnetism. The proposed method automatically recreates the radio map using geomagnetic radio-map dual processing (GRDP), which reduces the time required to create it. It also reduces the size of the radio map by actively optimizing its dimensions using an entropy-based minimum description length principle (MDLP) method. Experimental results in an actual building show that the proposed system exhibits similar map creation time as a system using a Wi-Fi–based radio map. Geomagnetic radio maps exhibiting over 80% positioning accuracy were created, and the dimensions of the radio map that combined the two signals were found to be reduced by 23.81%, compared to the initially prepared radio map. The dimensions vary according to the wireless signal state, and are automatically reduced in different environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: fingerprint; radio map; Wi-Fi; geomagnetism; minimum description length principle (MDLP) fingerprint; radio map; Wi-Fi; geomagnetism; minimum description length principle (MDLP)
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Seong, J.-H.; Seo, D.-H. Real-Time Recursive Fingerprint Radio Map Creation Algorithm Combining Wi-Fi and Geomagnetism. Sensors 2018, 18, 3390.

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