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Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3378; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103378

Concentric Ring Probe for Bioimpedance Spectroscopic Measurements: Design and Ex Vivo Feasibility Testing on Pork Oral Tissues

1
SIB Labs, Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2
Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
3
Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4
Educational Dental Clinic, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-70029 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Medical Sensing)
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Abstract

Many oral diseases, such as oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia, which have a high potential for malignant transformations, cause abnormal structural changes in the oral mucosa. These changes are clinically assessed by visual inspection and palpation despite their poor accuracy and subjective nature. We hypothesized that non-invasive bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) might be a viable option to improve the diagnostics of potentially malignant lesions. In this study, we aimed to design and optimize the measurement setup and to conduct feasibility testing on pork oral tissues. The contact pressure between a custom-made concentric ring probe and tissue was experimentally optimized. The effects of loading time and inter-electrode spacing on BIS spectra were also clarified. Tissue differentiation testing was performed for ex vivo pork oral tissues including palatinum, buccal mucosa, fat, and muscle tissue samples. We observed that the most reproducible results were obtained by using a loading weight of 200 g and a fixed time period under press, which was necessary to allow meaningful quantitative comparison. All studied tissues showed their own unique spectra, accompanied by significant differences in both impedance magnitude and phase (p ≤ 0.014, Kruskal-Wallis test). BIS shows promise, and further studies are warranted to clarify its potential to detect specific pathological tissue alterations. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioimpedance spectroscopy; electrical impedance spectroscopy; electrical characterization; probe; soft tissue; oral cancer; potentially malignant disorders; oral mucosa bioimpedance spectroscopy; electrical impedance spectroscopy; electrical characterization; probe; soft tissue; oral cancer; potentially malignant disorders; oral mucosa
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Emran, S.; Lappalainen, R.; Kullaa, A.M.; Myllymaa, S. Concentric Ring Probe for Bioimpedance Spectroscopic Measurements: Design and Ex Vivo Feasibility Testing on Pork Oral Tissues. Sensors 2018, 18, 3378.

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