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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010302

IMU-to-Segment Assignment and Orientation Alignment for the Lower Body Using Deep Learning

1
Junior Research Group wearHEALTH, University of Kaiserslautern, Gottlieb-Daimler-Str. 48, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
2
Augmented Vision Department, DFKI, Trippstadter Str. 122, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation) and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S) assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles. Existing approaches for I2S assignment usually rely on hand crafted features and shallow classification approaches (e.g., support vector machines), with no agreement regarding the most suitable features for the assignment task. Moreover, estimating the complete orientation alignment of an IMU relative to the segment it is attached to using a machine learning approach has not been shown in literature so far. This is likely due to the high amount of training data that have to be recorded to suitably represent possible IMU alignment variations. In this work, we propose online approaches for solving the assignment and alignment tasks for an arbitrary amount of IMUs with respect to a biomechanical lower body model using a deep learning architecture and windows of 128 gyroscope and accelerometer data samples. For this, we combine convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for local filter learning with long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent networks as well as generalized recurrent units (GRUs) for learning time dynamic features. The assignment task is casted as a classification problem, while the alignment task is casted as a regression problem. In this framework, we demonstrate the feasibility of augmenting a limited amount of real IMU training data with simulated alignment variations and IMU data for improving the recognition/estimation accuracies. With the proposed approaches and final models we achieved 98.57% average accuracy over all segments for the I2S assignment task (100% when excluding left/right switches) and an average median angle error over all segments and axes of 2.91 ° for the I2S alignment task. View Full-Text
Keywords: inertial sensors; automatic sensor placement; automatic sensor alignment; neural networks; deep learning; LSTM; CNN inertial sensors; automatic sensor placement; automatic sensor alignment; neural networks; deep learning; LSTM; CNN
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Zimmermann, T.; Taetz, B.; Bleser, G. IMU-to-Segment Assignment and Orientation Alignment for the Lower Body Using Deep Learning. Sensors 2018, 18, 302.

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