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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2118;

An Anti-Electromagnetic Attack PUF Based on a Configurable Ring Oscillator for Wireless Sensor Networks

School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Beijing Institute of Computer Technology and Applications, Beijing 100854, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security, Trust and Privacy for Sensor Networks)
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an emerging technology employed in some crucial applications. However, limited resources and physical exposure to attackers make security a challenging issue for a WSN. Ring oscillator-based physical unclonable function (RO PUF) is a potential option to protect the security of sensor nodes because it is able to generate random responses efficiently for a key extraction mechanism, which prevents the non-volatile memory from storing secret keys. In order to deploy RO PUF in a WSN, hardware efficiency, randomness, uniqueness, and reliability should be taken into account. Besides, the resistance to electromagnetic (EM) analysis attack is important to guarantee the security of RO PUF itself. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture of configurable RO PUF based on exclusive-or (XOR) gates. First, it dramatically increases the hardware efficiency compared with other types of RO PUFs. Second, it mitigates the vulnerability to EM analysis attack by placing the adjacent RO arrays in accordance with the cosine wave and sine wave so that the frequency of each RO cannot be detected. We implement our proposal in XINLINX A-7 field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and conduct a set of experiments to evaluate the quality of the responses. The results show that responses pass the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test and have good uniqueness and reliability under different environments. Therefore, the proposed configurable RO PUF is suitable to establish a key extraction mechanism in a WSN. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor network; configurable RO PUF; hardware efficiency; anti-EM attack wireless sensor network; configurable RO PUF; hardware efficiency; anti-EM attack

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Lu, Z.; Li, D.; Liu, H.; Gong, M.; Liu, Z. An Anti-Electromagnetic Attack PUF Based on a Configurable Ring Oscillator for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 2118.

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