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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081826

Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis

1
Geomatics/Remote Sensing Group, Geography Department, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum, Germany
2
German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD), Muenchner Strasse 20, D-82234 Wessling, Germany
3
Administrative District Office Zwickau, Department for Surveying, Geodata Management, Scherbergplatz 4, D-08371 Glauchau, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract

High resolution imaging spectroscopy data have been recognised as a valuable data resource for augmenting detailed material inventories that serve as input for various urban applications. Image-specific urban spectral libraries are successfully used in urban imaging spectroscopy studies. However, the regional- and sensor-specific transferability of such libraries is limited due to the wide range of different surface materials. With the developed methodology, incomplete urban spectral libraries can be utilised by assuming that unknown surface material spectra are dissimilar to the known spectra in a basic spectral library (BSL). The similarity measure SID-SCA (Spectral Information Divergence-Spectral Correlation Angle) is applied to detect image-specific unknown urban surfaces while avoiding spectral mixtures. These detected unknown materials are categorised into distinct and identifiable material classes based on their spectral and spatial metrics. Experimental results demonstrate a successful redetection of material classes that had been previously erased in order to simulate an incomplete BSL. Additionally, completely new materials e.g., solar panels were identified in the data. It is further shown that the level of incompleteness of the BSL and the defined dissimilarity threshold are decisive for the detection of unknown material classes and the degree of spectral intra-class variability. A detailed accuracy assessment of the pre-classification results, aiming to separate natural and artificial materials, demonstrates spectral confusions between spectrally similar materials utilizing SID-SCA. However, most spectral confusions occur between natural or artificial materials which are not affecting the overall aim. The dissimilarity analysis overcomes the limitations of working with incomplete urban spectral libraries and enables the generation of image-specific training databases. View Full-Text
Keywords: imaging spectroscopy; urban areas; spectral library; dissimilarity; unknown surface materials imaging spectroscopy; urban areas; spectral library; dissimilarity; unknown surface materials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jilge, M.; Heiden, U.; Habermeyer, M.; Mende, A.; Juergens, C. Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis. Sensors 2017, 17, 1826.

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