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Open AccessArticle

Full-Duplex Cooperative Sensing for Spectrum-Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks

Department of Network Engineering, P. L. A. Army Engineering University, Nangjing 210007, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1773;
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), spectrum sensing is critical for guaranteeing that the opportunistic spectrum access by secondary users (SUs) will not interrupt legitimate primary users (PUs). The application of full-duplex radio to spectrum sensing enables SU to carry out sensing and transmission simultaneously, improving both spectrum awareness and CRN throughput. However, the issue of spectrum sensing with full-duplex radios deployed in heterogeneous environments, where SUs may observe different spectrum activities, has not been addressed. In this paper, we give a first look into this problem and develop a light-weight cooperative sensing framework called PaCoSIF, which involves only a pairwise SU transmitter (SU-Tx) and its receiver (SU-Rx) in cooperation. A dedicated control channel is not required for pairwise cooperative sensing with instantaneous feedback (PaCoSIF) because sensing results are collected and fused via the reverse channel provided by full-duplex radios. We present a detailed protocol description to illustrate how PaCoSIF works. However, it is a challenge to optimize the sensing performance of PaCoSIF since the two sensors suffer from spectrum heterogeneity and different kinds of interference. Our goal is to minimize the false alarm rate of PaCoSIF given the bound on the missed detection rate by adaptively adjusting the detection threshold of each sensor. We derive an expression for the optimal threshold using the Lagrange method and propose a fast binary-searching algorithm to solve it numerically. Simulations show that, with perfect signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) information, PaCoSIF could decrease the false alarm rate and boost CRN throughput significantly against conventional cooperative sensing when SUs are deployed in spectrum-heterogeneous environments. Finally, the impact of SINR error upon the performance of PaCoSIF is evaluated via extensive simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive radio networks; full-duplex radio; cooperative spectrum sensing; spectrum heterogeneity; decision fusion cognitive radio networks; full-duplex radio; cooperative spectrum sensing; spectrum heterogeneity; decision fusion
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Liu, P.; Qi, W.; Yuan, E.; Wei, L.; Zhao, Y. Full-Duplex Cooperative Sensing for Spectrum-Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 1773.

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