Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) facilitate a wide range of aquatic applications in various domains. However, the harsh underwater environment poses challenges like low bandwidth, long propagation delay, high bit error rate, high deployment cost, irregular topological structure, etc. Node mobility and the uneven distribution of sensor nodes create void holes in UWSNs. Void hole creation has become a critical issue in UWSNs, as it severely affects the network performance. Avoiding void hole creation benefits better coverage over an area, less energy consumption in the network and high throughput. For this purpose, minimization of void hole probability particularly in local sparse regions is focused on in this paper. The two-hop adaptive hop by hop vector-based forwarding (2hop-AHH-VBF) protocol aims to avoid the void hole with the help of two-hop neighbor node information. The other protocol, quality forwarding adaptive hop by hop vector-based forwarding (QF-AHH-VBF), selects an optimal forwarder based on the composite priority function. QF-AHH-VBF improves network good-put because of optimal forwarder selection. QF-AHH-VBF aims to reduce void hole probability by optimally selecting next hop forwarders. To attain better network performance, mathematical problem formulation based on linear programming is performed. Simulation results show that by opting these mechanisms, significant reduction in end-to-end delay and better throughput are achieved in the network.
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