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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071542

A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

1
Department of Environmental Remote Sensing & Geoinformatics, University of Trier, 54286 Trier, Germany
2
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
3
German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), 14473 Potsdam, Germany
4
DLR German Aerospace Center, 82234 Weßling, Germany
5
Airbus DS GmbH, 88090 Immenstaad, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data)
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Abstract

This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral; thermal remote sensing; food security; satellite TIR mission hyperspectral; thermal remote sensing; food security; satellite TIR mission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Udelhoven, T.; Schlerf, M.; Segl, K.; Mallick, K.; Bossung, C.; Retzlaff, R.; Rock, G.; Fischer, P.; Müller, A.; Storch, T.; Eisele, A.; Weise, D.; Hupfer, W.; Knigge, T. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing. Sensors 2017, 17, 1542.

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