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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1336;

3D Printing-Based Integrated Water Quality Sensing System

School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jae-Won Cho and Erik D. Engeberg
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printed Sensors)
PDF [7027 KB, uploaded 9 June 2017]


The online and accurate monitoring of drinking water supply networks is critically in demand to rapidly detect the accidental or deliberate contamination of drinking water. At present, miniaturized water quality monitoring sensors developed in the laboratories are usually tested under ambient pressure and steady-state flow conditions; however, in Water Distribution Systems (WDS), both the pressure and the flowrate fluctuate. In this paper, an interface is designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology—material extrusion (Trade Name: fused deposition modeling, FDM) and material jetting—to provide a conduit for miniaturized sensors for continuous online water quality monitoring. The interface is designed to meet two main criteria: low pressure at the inlet of the sensors and a low flowrate to minimize the water bled (i.e., leakage), despite varying pressure from WDS. To meet the above criteria, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was used to optimize the geometry of the channel. The 3D printed interface, with the embedded miniaturized pH and conductivity sensors, was then tested at different temperatures and flowrates. The results show that the response of the pH sensor is independent of the flowrate and temperature. As for the conductivity sensor, the flowrate and temperature affect only the readings at a very low conductivity (4 µS/cm) and high flowrates (30 mL/min), and a very high conductivity (460 µS/cm), respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D-Printing; miniaturized sensors; water quality; online monitoring 3D-Printing; miniaturized sensors; water quality; online monitoring

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Banna, M.; Bera, K.; Sochol, R.; Lin, L.; Najjaran, H.; Sadiq, R.; Hoorfar, M. 3D Printing-Based Integrated Water Quality Sensing System. Sensors 2017, 17, 1336.

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