With the development of hyperspectral technology, to establish an effective spectral data compressive reconstruction method that can improve data storage, transmission, and maintaining spectral information is critical for quantitative remote sensing research and application in vegetation. The spectral adaptive grouping distributed compressive sensing (AGDCS) algorithm is proposed, which enables a distributed compressed sensing reconstruction of plant hyperspectral data. The spectral characteristics of hyperspectral data are analyzed and the joint sparse model is constructed. The spectral bands are adaptively grouped and the hyperspectral data are compressed and reconstructed on the basis of grouping. The experimental results showed that, compared with orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) and gradient projection for sparse reconstruction (GPSR), AGDCS can significantly improve the visual effect of image reconstruction in the spatial domain. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) at a low sampling rate (the sampling rate is lower than 0.2) increases by 13.72 dB than OMP and 1.66 dB than GPSR. In the spectral domain, the average normalized root mean square error, the mean absolute percentage error, and the mean absolute error of AGDCS is 35.38%, 31.83%, and 33.33% lower than GPSR, respectively. Additionally, AGDCS can achieve relatively high reconstructed efficiency.
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