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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1304;

Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy

Institute of Applied Remote Sensing and Information Technology, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Institute of Land and Urban-Rural Development, Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, 18 Xueyuan Road, Hangzhou 310019, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dale A. Quattrochi
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban green space; landscape metric; Landsat; greening policy urban green space; landscape metric; Landsat; greening policy

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Yu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Deng, J.; Shen, Z.; Wang, K.; Zhu, J.; Gan, M. Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy. Sensors 2017, 17, 1304.

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