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Open AccessArticle

Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nangjing 211189, China
College of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nangjing 210016, China
Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Towson University, Towson MD 21252, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yunchuan Sun, Zhipeng Cai and Antonio Jara
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 996;
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 30 April 2017
The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated research in indoor navigation systems, a majority of which rely on adequate wireless signals and sources. Nonetheless, deploying such a system requires periodic site-survey, which is time consuming and labor intensive. To address this issue, in this paper we present Canoe, an indoor navigation system that considers shopping mall scenarios. In our system, we do not assume any prior knowledge, such as floor-plan or the shop locations, access point placement or power settings, historical RSS measurements or fingerprints, etc. Instead, Canoe requires only that the shop owners collect and publish RSS values at the entrances of their shops and can direct a consumer to any of these shops by comparing the observed RSS values. The locations of the consumers and the shops are estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. In doing this, the direction of the target shop relative to the current orientation of the consumer can be precisely computed, such that the direction that a consumer should move can be determined. We have conducted extensive simulations using a real-world dataset. Our experiments in a real shopping mall demonstrate that if 50% of the shops publish their RSS values, Canoe can precisely navigate a consumer within 30 s, with an error rate below 9%. View Full-Text
Keywords: IoT; knowledge extraction; indoor navigation; location fingerprinting; missed AP problem; maximum likelihood estimation IoT; knowledge extraction; indoor navigation; location fingerprinting; missed AP problem; maximum likelihood estimation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, K.; Wu, W.; Ye, H.; Yang, M.; Ling, Z.; Yu, W. Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System. Sensors 2017, 17, 996.

AMA Style

Dong K, Wu W, Ye H, Yang M, Ling Z, Yu W. Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System. Sensors. 2017; 17(5):996.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Kai; Wu, Wenjia; Ye, Haibo; Yang, Ming; Ling, Zhen; Yu, Wei. 2017. "Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System" Sensors 17, no. 5: 996.

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