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Open AccessArticle

A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

Department of Automation and Systems, UFSC—Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Brazil
Department of Computing, UFSC—Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88905-120 Araranguá, Brazil
INEGI/INESC-TEC—Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuanyuan Yang and Songtao Guo
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 422;
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM) to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM) is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSN; battery modeling; KiBaM; thermal effect WSN; battery modeling; KiBaM; thermal effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, L.M.; Montez, C.; Moraes, R.; Portugal, P.; Vasques, F. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 422.

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