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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122790

A Wideband Magnetoresistive Sensor for Monitoring Dynamic Fault Slip in Laboratory Fault Friction Experiments

U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd. MS-977, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GMR and TMR Sensors)
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Abstract

A non-contact, wideband method of sensing dynamic fault slip in laboratory geophysical experiments employs an inexpensive magnetoresistive sensor, a small neodymium rare earth magnet, and user built application-specific wideband signal conditioning. The magnetoresistive sensor generates a voltage proportional to the changing angles of magnetic flux lines, generated by differential motion or rotation of the near-by magnet, through the sensor. The performance of an array of these sensors compares favorably to other conventional position sensing methods employed at multiple locations along a 2 m long × 0.4 m deep laboratory strike-slip fault. For these magnetoresistive sensors, the lack of resonance signals commonly encountered with cantilever-type position sensor mounting, the wide band response (DC to ≈ 100 kHz) that exceeds the capabilities of many traditional position sensors, and the small space required on the sample, make them attractive options for capturing high speed fault slip measurements in these laboratory experiments. An unanticipated observation of this study is the apparent sensitivity of this sensor to high frequency electomagnetic signals associated with fault rupture and (or) rupture propagation, which may offer new insights into the physics of earthquake faulting. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetoresistive; linear position sensor; dynamic fault slip; electromagnetic radiation magnetoresistive; linear position sensor; dynamic fault slip; electromagnetic radiation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kilgore, B.D. A Wideband Magnetoresistive Sensor for Monitoring Dynamic Fault Slip in Laboratory Fault Friction Experiments. Sensors 2017, 17, 2790.

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