Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization and the resulting planar graph is composed of short edges, and messages are forwarded along multiple nodes connected by them even though they can be forwarded directly. To solve this, face routing using information on all nodes within 2-hop range was adopted to forward messages directly to the farthest node within radio range. However, as the density of the nodes increases, network performance plunges because message transfer nodes receive and process increased node information. To deal with this problem, we propose a new face routing using the planar graphs of neighboring nodes to improve transfer efficiency. It forwards a message directly to the farthest neighbor and reduces loads and processing time by distributing network graph construction and planarization to the neighbors. It also decreases the amount of location information to be transmitted by sending information on the planar graph nodes rather than on all neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that it significantly improves transfer efficiency.
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