Plasmonic nanomaterials (P-NM) are receiving attention due to their excellent properties, which include surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects, plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), and magneto optical (MO) effects. To obtain such plasmonic properties, many nanomaterials have been developed, including metal nanoparticles (MNP), bimetallic nanoparticles (bMNP), MNP-decorated carbon nanotubes, (MNP-CNT), and MNP-modified graphene (MNP-GRP). These P-NMs may eventually be applied to optical biosensing systems due to their unique properties. Here, probe biomolecules, such as antibodies (Ab), probe DNA, and probe aptamers, were modified on the surface of plasmonic materials by chemical conjugation and thiol chemistry. The optical property change in the plasmonic nanomaterials was monitored based on the interaction between the probe biomolecules and target virus. After bioconjugation, several optical properties, including fluorescence, plasmonic absorbance, and diffraction angle, were changed to detect the target biomolecules. This review describes several P-NMs as potential candidates of optical sensing platforms and introduces various applications in the optical biosensing field.
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