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EDOVE: Energy and Depth Variance-Based Opportunistic Void Avoidance Scheme for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, DGIST, Daegu 42988, Korea
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2212;
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Underwater Sensor Networks)
PDF [1459 KB, uploaded 27 September 2017]


Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) comes with intrinsic constraints because it is deployed in the aquatic environment and uses the acoustic signals to communicate. The examples of those constraints are long propagation delay, very limited bandwidth, high energy cost for transmission, very high signal attenuation, costly deployment and battery replacement, and so forth. Therefore, the routing schemes for UASN must take into account those characteristics to achieve energy fairness, avoid energy holes, and improve the network lifetime. The depth based forwarding schemes in literature use node’s depth information to forward data towards the sink. They minimize the data packet duplication by employing the holding time strategy. However, to avoid void holes in the network, they use two hop node proximity information. In this paper, we propose the Energy and Depth variance-based Opportunistic Void avoidance (EDOVE) scheme to gain energy balancing and void avoidance in the network. EDOVE considers not only the depth parameter, but also the normalized residual energy of the one-hop nodes and the normalized depth variance of the second hop neighbors. Hence, it avoids the void regions as well as balances the network energy and increases the network lifetime. The simulation results show that the EDOVE gains more than 15 % packet delivery ratio, propagates 50 % less copies of data packet, consumes less energy, and has more lifetime than the state of the art forwarding schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: void avoidance; depth variance; normalized residual energy; energy balancing void avoidance; depth variance; normalized residual energy; energy balancing

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Bouk, S.H.; Ahmed, S.H.; Park, K.-J.; Eun, Y. EDOVE: Energy and Depth Variance-Based Opportunistic Void Avoidance Scheme for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 2212.

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