In this paper, we consider the visual sensor deployment algorithm in Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). With PTZ capability, a sensor’s visual coverage can be extended to reduce the number of visual sensors that need to be deployed. The coverage zone of a visual sensor in PTZ WVSN is composed of two regions, a Direct Coverage Region (DCR) and a PTZ Coverage Region (PTZCR). In the PTZCR, a visual sensor needs a mechanical pan-tilt-zoom operation to cover an object. This mechanical operation can take seconds, so the sensor might not be able to adjust the camera in time to capture the visual data. In this paper, for the first time, we study this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem. We formulate this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the total visual sensor deployment cost so that each area is either covered in the DCR or in the PTZCR while considering the PTZ time constraint. The proposed Time Aware Coverage Zone (TACZ) model successfully captures the PTZ visual sensor coverage in terms of camera focal range, angle span zone coverage and camera PTZ time. Then a novel heuristic, called Time Aware Deployment with PTZ camera (TADPTZ) algorithm, is proposed to solve the problem. From our computational experiments, we found out that TACZ model outperforms the existing M
coverage model under all network scenarios. In addition, as compared to the optimal solutions, the TACZ model is scalable and adaptable to the different PTZ time requirements when deploying large PTZ WVSNs.
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