Next Article in Journal
BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Fisheye-Lens-Based Photoacoustic System
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2188;

A Novel Modification of PSO Algorithm for SML Estimation of DOA

College of Computer and Communication Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
Graduate School of Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami 090-8507, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Full-Text   |   PDF [340 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  


This paper addresses the issue of reducing the computational complexity of Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML) estimation of Direction-of-Arrival (DOA). The SML algorithm is well-known for its high accuracy of DOA estimation in sensor array signal processing. However, its computational complexity is very high because the estimation of SML criteria is a multi-dimensional non-linear optimization problem. As a result, it is hard to apply the SML algorithm to real systems. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is considered as a rather efficient method for multi-dimensional non-linear optimization problems in DOA estimation. However, the conventional PSO algorithm suffers two defects, namely, too many particles and too many iteration times. Therefore, the computational complexity of SML estimation using conventional PSO algorithm is still a little high. To overcome these two defects and to reduce computational complexity further, this paper proposes a novel modification of the conventional PSO algorithm for SML estimation and we call it Joint-PSO algorithm. The core idea of the modification lies in that it uses the solution of Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) and stochastic Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) to determine a novel initialization space. Since this initialization space is already close to the solution of SML, fewer particles and fewer iteration times are needed. As a result, the computational complexity can be greatly reduced. In simulation, we compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional PSO algorithm, the classic Altering Minimization (AM) algorithm and Genetic algorithm (GA). Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm is one of the most efficient solving algorithms and it shows great potential for the application of SML in real systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: direction-of-arrival; stochastic maximum likelihood; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm; computational complexity direction-of-arrival; stochastic maximum likelihood; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm; computational complexity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, H.; Li, S.; Liu, J.; Liu, F.; Suzuki, M. A Novel Modification of PSO Algorithm for SML Estimation of DOA. Sensors 2016, 16, 2188.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top