Next Article in Journal
High Accuracy Acquisition of 3-D Flight Trajectory of Individual Insect Based on Phase Measurement
Next Article in Special Issue
Correction: Farina, G.L., et al. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping. Sensors 2016, 16, 2163
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis, Characterization, and Sensor Applications of Spinel ZnCo2O4 Nanoparticles
Previous Article in Special Issue
High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone
Article Menu

Export Article

Correction published on 23 February 2017, see Sensors 2017, 17(3), 434.

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2163;

A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping

Section of Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00173, Italy
Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202-7166, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ki H. Chon
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone-Based Sensors for Non-Invasive Physiological Monitoring)
Full-Text   |   PDF [543 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  


Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP) and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM). This approach utilizes the percent (%) occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years) with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R2 = 0.949, SEE = 2.83) and males (R2 = 0.907, SEE = 2.71). Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96) for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to −5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to −5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition assessment; mobile health; weight management body composition assessment; mobile health; weight management

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Farina, G.L.; Spataro, F.; De Lorenzo, A.; Lukaski, H. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping. Sensors 2016, 16, 2163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top