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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Urine through Sensitized Lanthanide Luminescence

Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang 37673, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jong Seung Kim and Min Hee Lee
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2065;
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensor)
Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine. Although ciprofloxacin itself shows inherent fluorescence, direct fluorescent detection of ciprofloxacin in raw urine sample is difficult due to autofluorescence of urine by other components. Herein we report that a Tb(III) complex of DO3A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) can be efficiently sensitized by ciprofloxacin to emit luminescence separately from the urine autofluorescence wavelength region. Tb-DO3A shows excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of three parts per billion in aqueous buffer solution. Further, Tb-DO3A is used to detect ciprofloxacin with high sensitivity and selectivity in a raw urine sample without any purification or separation procedures in the concentrations ranging from 1 µg·mL−1 to 50 µg·mL−1. The direct measurement of ciprofloxacin excreted in urine may be used to control overdose of the drug. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciprofloxacin; lanthanides; luminescence; urine ciprofloxacin; lanthanides; luminescence; urine
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Singha, S.; Ahn, K.H. Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Urine through Sensitized Lanthanide Luminescence. Sensors 2016, 16, 2065.

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