Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors
Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstrasse 2, 24143 Kiel, Germany
Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Current address: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susana Cardoso de Freitas and Paulo P. Freitas
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors pose a bright perspective in micro- and nano-scale strain sensing technology. The behavior of TMR sensors under mechanical stress as well as their sensitivity to the applied stress depends on the magnetization configuration of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ)s with respect to the stress axis. Here, we propose a configuration resulting in an inverse effect on the tunnel resistance by tensile and compressive stresses. Numerical simulations, based on a modified Stoner–Wohlfarth (SW) model, are performed in order to understand the magnetization reversal of the sense layer and to find out the optimum bias magnetic field required for high strain sensitivity. At a bias field of −3.2 kA/m under a
strain, gauge factors of 2294 and −311 are calculated under tensile and compressive stresses, respectively. Modeling results are investigated experimentally on a round junction with a diameter of
m using a four-point bending apparatus. The measured field and strain loops exhibit nearly the same trends as the calculated ones. Also, the gauge factors are in the same range. The junction exhibits gauge factors of
and −260 for tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, under a −3.2 kA/m bias magnetic field. The agreement of the experimental and modeling results approves the proposed configuration for high sensitivity and ability to detect both tensile and compressive stresses by a single TMR sensor.
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Tavassolizadeh, A.; Rott, K.; Meier, T.; Quandt, E.; Hölscher, H.; Reiss, G.; Meyners, D. Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors. Sensors 2016, 16, 1902.
Tavassolizadeh A, Rott K, Meier T, Quandt E, Hölscher H, Reiss G, Meyners D. Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors. Sensors. 2016; 16(11):1902.
Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Rott, Karsten; Meier, Tobias; Quandt, Eckhard; Hölscher, Hendrik; Reiss, Günter; Meyners, Dirk. 2016. "Tunnel Magnetoresistance Sensors with Magnetostrictive Electrodes: Strain Sensors." Sensors 16, no. 11: 1902.
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