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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1809;

3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China
Key Laboratory of Fiber Optical Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mianxiong Dong, Zhi Liu, Anfeng Liu and Didier El Baz
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Paradigms in Cyber-Physical Social Sensing)


Most location-based services are based on a global positioning system (GPS), which only works well in outdoor environments. Compared to outdoor environments, indoor localization has created more buzz in recent years as people spent most of their time indoors working at offices and shopping at malls, etc. Existing solutions mainly rely on inertial sensors (i.e., accelerometer and gyroscope) embedded in mobile devices, which are usually not accurate enough to be useful due to the mobile devices’ random movements while people are walking. In this paper, we propose the use of shoe sensing (i.e., sensors attached to shoes) to achieve 3D indoor positioning. Specifically, a short-time energy-based approach is used to extract the gait pattern. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of vertical distance estimation while the person is climbing upstairs, a state classification is designed to distinguish the walking status including plane motion (i.e., normal walking and jogging horizontally), walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. Furthermore, we also provide a mechanism to reduce the vertical distance accumulation error. Experimental results show that we can achieve nearly 100% accuracy when extracting gait patterns from walking/jogging with a low-cost shoe sensor, and can also achieve 3D indoor real-time positioning with high accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization; 3D positioning; inertial sensor; walking state classification indoor localization; 3D positioning; inertial sensor; walking state classification

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, F.; Liu, G.; Liu, J.; Chen, X.; Ma, X. 3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing. Sensors 2016, 16, 1809.

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