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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1635;

3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patricia A. Broderick
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 2 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing Technology for Healthcare System)
PDF [2547 KB, uploaded 2 October 2016]


Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroencephalography (EEG); dry electrodes; 3D printing; personalized healthcare electroencephalography (EEG); dry electrodes; 3D printing; personalized healthcare

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Krachunov, S.; Casson, A.J. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes. Sensors 2016, 16, 1635.

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