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Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16083-16104;

Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers

AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Galician Research and Development Center in Advanced Telecommunications (GRADIANT), Edif. CITEXVI local 14, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Puliafito
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Smart Cities)
Full-Text   |   PDF [12123 KB, uploaded 3 July 2015]


Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things; sensors; augmented reality; smart city; visible light communication Internet of Things; sensors; augmented reality; smart city; visible light communication
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chaves-Diéguez, D.; Pellitero-Rivero, A.; García-Coego, D.; González-Castaño, F.J.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.S.; Piñeiro-Gómez, Ó.; Gil-Castiñeira, F.; Costa-Montenegro, E. Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers. Sensors 2015, 15, 16083-16104.

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