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Open AccessArticle

Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture (DITEN), University of Genoa, 5-16126 Genova, Italy
2
Pattern Analysis & Computer Vision (PAVIS), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), 30.16163 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13477-13502; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150613477
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches. View Full-Text
Keywords: beamforming; end-fire arrays; oversteering; maximum directivity; white noise gain; microphone and hydrophone arrays beamforming; end-fire arrays; oversteering; maximum directivity; white noise gain; microphone and hydrophone arrays
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trucco, A.; Traverso, F.; Crocco, M. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays. Sensors 2015, 15, 13477-13502.

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