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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 10465-10480;

Towards a Dynamic Clamp for Neurochemical Modalities

Departments of Mathematics, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA
Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kwang W. Oh
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On-Chip Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2689 KB, uploaded 4 May 2015]


The classic dynamic clamp technique uses a real-time electrical interface between living cells and neural simulations in order to investigate hypotheses about neural function and structure. One of the acknowledged drawbacks of that technique is the limited control of the cells’ chemical microenvironment. In this manuscript, we use a novel combination of nanosensor and microfluidic technology and microfluidic and neural simulations to add sensing and control of chemical concentrations to the dynamic clamp technique. Specifically, we use a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip to generate distinct chemical concentration gradients (ions or neuromodulators), to register the concentrations with embedded nanosensors and use the processed signals as an input to simulations of a neural cell. The ultimate goal of this project is to close the loop and provide sensor signals to the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip to mimic the interaction of the simulated cell with other cells in its chemical environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotube sensors; microfluidics; neural modeling; dynamic clamp carbon nanotube sensors; microfluidics; neural modeling; dynamic clamp
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rivera, C.M.; Kwon, H.-J.; Hashmi, A.; Yu, G.; Zhao, J.; Gao, J.; Xu, J.; Xue, W.; Dimitrov, A.G. Towards a Dynamic Clamp for Neurochemical Modalities. Sensors 2015, 15, 10465-10480.

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