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Open AccessArticle

Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

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Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou 54561, Taiwan
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Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
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Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Science (Vietnam National University of Hochiminh City), District 5, Hochiminh City 999100, Vietnam
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Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
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Department of Electronics Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Nantou 54243, Taiwan
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Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
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Division of Science & Technology, Hong Kong Community College, Hong Kong, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frances S. Ligler
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29408-29418; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129408
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Regular monitoring of blood α-fetoprotein (AFP) and/or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels is important for the routine screening of liver cancer. However, AFP and CEA have a much lower specificity than des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) to detect liver cancer. Therefore, the study reported here was designed, to develop a screen-printed DCP immunosensor incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles, for accurate determination of DCP. The designed immunosensor shows low detection limits for the detection of DCP: 0.440 ng/mL (based on impedance measurement), 0.081 ng/mL (based on real part of impedance measurement) and 0.078 ng/mL (based on imaginary part of impedance measurement), within the range of 3.125 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. In addition, there was little interference to DCP determination by molecules such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, glucose, urea, and uric acid. It is therefore concluded that the DCP immunosensor developed and reported here is simple, inexpensive and effective, and shows promise in the rapid screening of early-stage liver cancer at home with a point-of-care approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cancer; DCP; immunosensor; screening; nanoparticle liver cancer; DCP; immunosensor; screening; nanoparticle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ching, C.T.-S.; Van Hieu, N.; Cheng, T.-Y.; Fu, L.-S.; Sun, T.-P.; Liu, M.-Y.; Huang, S.-H.; Yao, Y.-D. Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Sensors 2015, 15, 29408-29418.

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