Next Article in Journal
Combined Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and IR Thermography Applied to a Historical Building
Next Article in Special Issue
Fusion of WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks Using the Kalman Filter for Indoor Localization
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Ultrasound Technique for Detection of Osteochondral Defects in the Ankle Joint: A Parametric and Feasibility Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Magnetic, Acceleration Fields and Gyroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-Based Attitude Estimation with Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 166-193;

Stand-Alone and Hybrid Positioning Using Asynchronous Pseudolites

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (JRC), Security Technology Assessment Unit, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Indoor Mapping and Navigation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1008 KB, uploaded 24 December 2014]


global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are usually unable to achieve satisfactory performance in difficult environments, such as open-pit mines, urban canyons and indoors. Pseudolites have the potential to extend GNSS usage and significantly improve receiver performance in such environments by providing additional navigation signals. This also applies to asynchronous pseudolite systems, where different pseudolites operate in an independent way. Asynchronous pseudolite systems require, however, dedicated strategies in order to properly integrate GNSS and pseudolite measurements. In this paper, several asynchronous pseudolite/GNSS integration strategies are considered: loosely- and tightly-coupled approaches are developed and combined with pseudolite proximity and receiver signal strength (RSS)-based positioning. The performance of the approaches proposed has been tested in different scenarios, including static and kinematic conditions. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for integrating heterogeneous measurements from different sources, such as asynchronous pseudolites and GNSS. View Full-Text
Keywords: asynchronous system; GNSS; GPS; loosely-coupled; tightly-coupled asynchronous system; GNSS; GPS; loosely-coupled; tightly-coupled
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gioia, C.; Borio, D. Stand-Alone and Hybrid Positioning Using Asynchronous Pseudolites. Sensors 2015, 15, 166-193.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top