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Sensors 2014, 14(3), 5004-5040;

Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310 JB, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1327 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers’ point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; Seluge; Merkle tree; over-the-air programming; security wireless sensor networks; Seluge; Merkle tree; over-the-air programming; security
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Doroodgar, F.; Razzaque, M.A.; Isnin, I.F. Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2014, 14, 5004-5040.

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