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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22940-22970;

Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Nigeria
Department of Exercise Science, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Kiewit Fitness Center 228, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1087 KB, uploaded 3 December 2014]


The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: mechanomyographic signal; MMG parameters; muscle performance; isokinetic; isometric; electromyogram mechanomyographic signal; MMG parameters; muscle performance; isokinetic; isometric; electromyogram
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ibitoye, M.O.; Hamzaid, N.A.; Zuniga, J.M.; Hasnan, N.; Wahab, A.K.A. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications. Sensors 2014, 14, 22940-22970.

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