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Sensors 2014, 14(11), 22082-22098;

Overcoming the Challenges of BeiDou Receiver Implementation

Department of Navigation and Positioning, Finnish Geodetic Institute, 02430 Kirkkonummi, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1353 KB, uploaded 21 November 2014]


Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based positioning is experiencing rapid changes. The existing GPS and the GLONASS systems are being modernized to better serve the current challenging applications under harsh signal conditions. These modernizations include increasing the number of transmission frequencies and changes to the signal components. In addition, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite system (BDS) and the European Galileo are currently under development for global operation. Therefore, in view of these new upcoming systems the research and development of GNSS receivers has been experiencing a new upsurge. In this article, the authors discuss the main functionalities of a GNSS receiver in view of BDS. While describing the main functionalities of a software-defined BeiDou receiver, the authors also highlight the similarities and differences between the signal characteristics of the BeiDou B1 open service signal and the legacy GPS L1 C/A signal, as in general they both exhibit similar characteristics. In addition, the authors implement a novel acquisition technique for long coherent integration in the presence of NH code modulation in BeiDou D1 signal. Furthermore, a simple phase-preserved coherent integration based acquisition scheme is implemented for BeiDou GEO satellite acquisition. Apart from the above BeiDou-specific implementations, a novel Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio estimation technique is also implemented in the software receiver, which does not necessarily require bit synchronization prior to estimation. Finally, the authors present a BeiDou-only position fix with the implemented software-defined BeiDou receiver considering all three satellite constellations from BDS. In addition, a true multi-GNSS position fix with GPS and BDS systems is also presented while comparing their performances for a static stand-alone code phase-based positioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: BeiDou Navigation Satellite system; acquisition; tracking; software-defined receiver; multi-GNSS BeiDou Navigation Satellite system; acquisition; tracking; software-defined receiver; multi-GNSS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bhuiyan, M.Z.H.; Söderholm, S.; Thombre, S.; Ruotsalainen, L.; Kuusniemi, H. Overcoming the Challenges of BeiDou Receiver Implementation. Sensors 2014, 14, 22082-22098.

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