Next Article in Journal
Using Smart Phone Sensors to Detect Transportation Modes
Next Article in Special Issue
Fabrication of a PMN-PT Single Crystal-Based Transcranial Doppler Transducer and the Power Regulation of Its Detection System
Previous Article in Journal
Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of the Lift-Off Effect on the Cut-Off Frequency of the EMAT-Generated Rayleigh Wave Signal
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20825-20842;

Dual-Frequency Piezoelectric Transducers for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University at Raleigh, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Department of Mechanical & Aero-Space Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 3 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Full-Text   |   PDF [2437 KB, uploaded 4 November 2014]   |  


For many years, ultrasound has provided clinicians with an affordable and effective imaging tool for applications ranging from cardiology to obstetrics. Development of microbubble contrast agents over the past several decades has enabled ultrasound to distinguish between blood flow and surrounding tissue. Current clinical practices using microbubble contrast agents rely heavily on user training to evaluate degree of localized perfusion. Advances in separating the signals produced from contrast agents versus surrounding tissue backscatter provide unique opportunities for specialized sensors designed to image microbubbles with higher signal to noise and resolution than previously possible. In this review article, we describe the background principles and recent developments of ultrasound transducer technology for receiving signals produced by contrast agents while rejecting signals arising from soft tissue. This approach relies on transmitting at a low-frequency and receiving microbubble harmonic signals at frequencies many times higher than the transmitted frequency. Design and fabrication of dual-frequency transducers and the extension of recent developments in transducer technology for dual-frequency harmonic imaging are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustics; acoustic angiography; dual-frequency; superharmonic; harmonic; broadband; microbubbles acoustics; acoustic angiography; dual-frequency; superharmonic; harmonic; broadband; microbubbles

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, K.H.; Lindsey, B.D.; Ma, J.; Lee, M.; Li, S.; Foster, F.S.; Jiang, X.; Dayton, P.A. Dual-Frequency Piezoelectric Transducers for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging. Sensors 2014, 14, 20825-20842.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top