Next Article in Journal
On the Use of Simple Geometric Descriptors Provided by RGB-D Sensors for Re-Identification
Previous Article in Journal
Rapid Detection of Viable Microorganisms Based on a Plate Count Technique Using Arrayed Microelectrodes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8199-8221;

Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves

Department of Management Information System, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [596 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


Driving safety has become a global topic of discussion with the recent development of the Smart Car concept. Many of the current car safety monitoring systems are based on image discrimination techniques, such as sensing the vehicle drifting from the main road, or changes in the driver’s facial expressions. However, these techniques are either too simplistic or have a low success rate as image processing is easily affected by external factors, such as weather and illumination. We developed a drowsiness detection mechanism based on an electroencephalogram (EEG) reading collected from the driver with an off-the-shelf mobile sensor. This sensor employs wireless transmission technology and is suitable for wear by the driver of a vehicle. The following classification techniques were incorporated: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and k Nearest Neighbor. These classifiers were integrated with integration functions after a genetic algorithm was first used to adjust the weighting for each classifier in the integration function. In addition, since past studies have shown effects of music on a person’s state-of-mind, we propose a personalized music recommendation mechanism as a part of our system. Through the in-car stereo system, this music recommendation mechanism can help prevent a driver from becoming drowsy due to monotonous road conditions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed drowsiness detection method to determine a driver’s state of mind, and the music recommendation system is therefore able to reduce drowsiness. View Full-Text
Keywords: classifier; drowsy detection; EEG sensor; electroencephalogram; refreshing music classifier; drowsy detection; EEG sensor; electroencephalogram; refreshing music
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, N.-H.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-M. Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves. Sensors 2013, 13, 8199-8221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top