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Sensors 2012, 12(8), 11100-11112;

Design and Fabrication of a Large-Stroke Deformable Mirror Using a Gear-Shape Ionic-Conductive Polymer Metal Composite

Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1006 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


Conventional camera modules with image sensors manipulate the focus or zoom by moving lenses. Although motors, such as voice-coil motors, can move the lens sets precisely, large volume, high power consumption, and long moving time are critical issues for motor-type camera modules. A deformable mirror (DM) provides a good opportunity to improve these issues. The DM is a reflective type optical component which can alter the optical power to focus the lights on the two dimensional optical image sensors. It can make the camera system operate rapidly. Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a promising electro-actuated polymer material that can be used in micromachining devices because of its large deformation with low actuation voltage. We developed a convenient simulation model based on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. We divided an ion exchange polymer, also known as Nafion®, into two virtual layers in the simulation model: one was expansive and the other was contractive, caused by opposite constant surface forces on each surface of the elements. Therefore, the deformation for different IPMC shapes can be described more easily. A standard experiment of voltage vs. tip displacement was used to verify the proposed modeling. Finally, a gear shaped IPMC actuator was designed and tested. Optical power of the IPMC deformable mirror is experimentally demonstrated to be 17 diopters with two volts. The needed voltage was about two orders lower than conventional silicon deformable mirrors and about one order lower than the liquid lens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nafion®; IPMC; deformable mirror; FEM; grey box model Nafion®; IPMC; deformable mirror; FEM; grey box model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wei, H.-C.; Su, G.-D. Design and Fabrication of a Large-Stroke Deformable Mirror Using a Gear-Shape Ionic-Conductive Polymer Metal Composite. Sensors 2012, 12, 11100-11112.

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