Next Article in Journal
An Electronic Nose for Reliable Measurement and Correct Classification of Beverages
Previous Article in Journal
Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2011, 11(6), 6425-6434;

Low-Cost Gas Sensors Produced by the Graphite Line-Patterning Technique Applied to Monitoring Banana Ripeness

National Nanotechnology Laboratory for Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, P.O. Box 741, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
Center for Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences (CECS), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), 09210-170, Santo André, SP, Brazil
Center Multidisciplinary, Federal University of Acre (UFAC), 69915-900 Cruzeiro do Sul, AC, Brazil
Department of Physics Mathematics and Chemistry (DFMQ), Federal University of São Carlos (UFScar), 18052-780, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 9 June 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [369 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


A low-cost sensor array system for banana ripeness monitoring is presented. The sensors are constructed by employing a graphite line-patterning technique (LPT) to print interdigitated graphite electrodes on tracing paper and then coating the printed area with a thin film of polyaniline (PANI) by in-situ polymerization as the gas-sensitive layer. The PANI layers were used for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including ethylene, emitted during ripening. The influence of the various acid dopants, hydrochloric acid (HCl), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), p-toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), on the electrical properties of the thin film of PANI adsorbed on the electrodes was also studied. The extent of doping of the films was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and tests showed that the type of dopant plays an important role in the performance of these low-cost sensors. The array of three sensors, without the PANI-HCl sensor, was able to produce a distinct pattern of signals, taken as a signature (fingerprint) that can be used to characterize bananas ripeness. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; conducting polymer; low-cost gas sensors electronic nose; conducting polymer; low-cost gas sensors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Manzoli, A.; Steffens, C.; Paschoalin, R.T.; Correa, A.A.; Alves, W.F.; Leite, F.L.; Herrmann, P.S.P. Low-Cost Gas Sensors Produced by the Graphite Line-Patterning Technique Applied to Monitoring Banana Ripeness. Sensors 2011, 11, 6425-6434.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top