Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Recent Advances in Understanding the Effects of Climate Change on Coral Reefs
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Diversity in Apple Fruit Moth Indicate Different Clusters in the Two Most Important Apple Growing Regions of Norway
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of a High-Density Brachiolaria-Stage Larval Population of Crown-of-Thorns Sea Star (Acanthaster planci) in Sekisei Lagoon (Okinawa, Japan)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Diversity 2016, 8(2), 11;

Prevalence and Incidence of Black Band Disease of Scleractinian Corals in the Kepulauan Seribu Region of Indonesia

Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Jl. Perikanan No. 13, Pancoran Mas, Kota Depok, Jawa Barat 16436, Indonesia
Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis No.1 Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
Molecular Health and Disease Laboratory, Enviornmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zoe Richards and Michael Wink
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coral Reef Biodiversity and Conservation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [940 KB, uploaded 28 April 2016]   |  


Black band disease (BBD) is the oldest recognised disease associated with scleractinian corals. However, despite this, few BBD surveys have been conducted in the Indonesian archipelago, one of the world’s hot spots for coral diversity. In this study, we show that BBD was recorded in the reefs of Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia, at the time of surveying. The disease was found to mainly infect corals of the genus Montipora. In some instances, upwards of 177 colonies (31.64%) were found to be infected at specific sites. Prevalence of the disease ranged from 0.31% to 31.64% of Montipora sp. colonies throughout the archipelago. Although BBD was found at all sites, lower frequencies were associated with sites closest to the mainland (17.99 km), as well as those that were furthest away (63.65 km). Despite there being no linear relationship between distance from major population centers and BBD incidence, high incidences of this disease were associated with sites characterized by higher levels of light intensity. Furthermore, surveys revealed that outbreaks peaked during the transitional period between the dry and rainy seasons. Therefore, we suggest that future surveys for disease prevalence in this region of Indonesia should focus on these transitory periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: black band disease; coral reef; light intensity; Montipora; water pollution black band disease; coral reef; light intensity; Montipora; water pollution

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Johan, O.; Zamany, N.P.; Smith, D.; Sweet, M.J. Prevalence and Incidence of Black Band Disease of Scleractinian Corals in the Kepulauan Seribu Region of Indonesia. Diversity 2016, 8, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top